Conopeum

A Intermediate genera from the “Other: Bryozoa” group, mostly found in Cobbles

Cobbles

Intermediate

Other: Bryozoa

Genera Characteristics Recorded Traits Possible Values
Size in cm
  • 1-10 cm
  • <1 cm
  • 1-10 cm
  • 11-20 cm
  • >20 cm
Genera Characteristics Recorded Traits Possible Values
Motility (Adult)
  • Sedentary
  • Adult
  • Short Range Mobility
  • Sedentary

“Sedentary”

Motility (Larval)
  • Long Term Planktonic
  • Long Term Planktonic
  • Short Term Planktonic
  • Brooded or Laid Eggs

“Long Term Planktonic”

Lifespan
  • >10 years
  • 3-10 years
  • 1-2 years
  • <1 year
Maturity
  • <1 year
  • >4 years
  • 3-4 years
  • 1-2 years
  • <1 year
Fecundity
  • 1 - 10
  • 10 - 100
  • 100 - 1000
  • 1000 - 10000
  • 10000 - 1 million
  • > 1 million

Image: Conopeum © MES

Vulnerability

The bryozoan Conopeum is an epifaunal active suspension feeder of macroalgal spores, detritus and bacteria and so ambient water flow is important for a supply of food. It is widespread along the coasts of UK, mostly along the south coast of Britain. This genus is found intertidally up to 42 m depth. These bryozoans have been reported from a wide variety of hard substrata including boulders, cobbles, shell and small stones on sediment and shells of Mytilus edulis. It is likely to be vulnerable to sediment mobilization.

Recoverability

Most bryozoans are hermaphroditic and probably protandric, with the zooids becoming males and then females. Released sperm are entrained by the tentacles of the female polyps and may not disperse far, resulting in self fertilization. 5-9 eggs per zooid are produced and the fecundity of the colony is probably directly proportional to the number of functional zooids. Significant settlements of Conopeum have only been found near reservoirs of breeding colonies. Nevertheless, Conopeum larvae have an extended planktonic life and are a common member of fouling communities on new substrata and growth in zooid number is exponential. Thus, recoverability is expected to moderately fast.

References

  • Biology

    • Best & Thorpe, 1994
    • Hayward & Ryland, 1998
    • Hunter & Hughes, 1994
    • Menon, 1972
    • Menon, 1974
    • Ryland, 1967
    • Ryland, 1970
    • Ryland, 1976
    • Winston, 1977
  • Taxonomy

    • Hayward & Ryland, 1995b
    • Hayward & Ryland, 1998
    • Hayward et al., 1996
    • Hincks, 1880
    • Howson & Picton, 1997
    • NBN, 2002
    • Ryland, 1967
    • Ryland, 1970
    • Ryland, 1976
  • Distribution

    • Cook, 1964
    • Grant & Hayward, 1985
    • Hayward & Ryland, 1995b
    • Hayward & Ryland, 1998
    • Hayward et al., 1996
    • Hincks, 1880
    • JNCC, 1999
    • NBN, 2002
    • Ryland, 1967
    • Ryland, 1970
    • Ryland, 1976
  • Reproduction

    • Bayer et al., 1994
    • Cook, 1964
    • Eggleston, 1972b
    • Hatcher, 1998
    • Hayward & Ryland, 1998
    • Ryland, 1967
    • Ryland, 1970
    • Ryland, 1976