Electra

A Intermediate genera from the “Other: Bryozoa” group, mostly found in Cobbles

Cobbles

Intermediate

Other: Bryozoa

Genera Characteristics Recorded Traits Possible Values
Size in cm
  • 1-10 cm
  • <1 cm
  • 1-10 cm
  • 11-20 cm
  • >20 cm
Genera Characteristics Recorded Traits Possible Values
Motility (Adult)
  • Sedentary
  • Adult
  • Short Range Mobility
  • Sedentary

“Sedentary”

Motility (Larval)
  • Long Term Planktonic
  • Long Term Planktonic
  • Short Term Planktonic
  • Brooded or Laid Eggs

“Long Term Planktonic”

Lifespan
  • >10 years
  • 3-10 years
  • 1-2 years
  • <1 year
Maturity
  • >4 years
  • 3-4 years
  • 1-2 years
  • <1 year
Fecundity
  • 10 - 100
  • 1 - 10
  • 10 - 100
  • 100 - 1000
  • 1000 - 10000
  • 10000 - 1 million
  • > 1 million

Image: Electra © Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Plymouth

Vulnerability

Electra is an epibenthic colonial bryozoan that can settle on a wide range of hard substrata (epifaunal, epiphytic, epilithic) and is a common member of fouling communities. It is an active suspension feeder whose growth rates have been shown to vary with environmental conditions since feeding rates are increased with increasing food concentration. This bryozoan is likely to be vulnerable to dredging activities.

Recoverability

Individual zooids of Electra may produce up to 31 eggs but of these a maximum of 17 are released. Fertilization is internal since maternal lophopores may actively collect sperm. The colonies can probably survive several years. The taxon is also adapted to ephemeral habitats and therefore capable of rapid growth and reproduction of numerous offspring from the colony. The larvae have an extended planktonic life so Electra exhibits good dispersal and potentially rapid recruitment. This genus is likely to be moderately resilient to dredging disturbance.

References

  • Biology

    • Bayer et al., 1994
    • Bayer et al., 1997
    • Best & Thorpe, 1986
    • Best & Thorpe, 1994
    • Hayward & Ryland, 1995b
    • Hayward & Ryland, 1998
    • Hermansen et al., 2001
    • Hunter & Hughes, 1994
    • Jeanmougin et al, 1987
    • Menon, 1972
    • Okamura, 1988
    • Ryland, 1967
    • Ryland, 1970
    • Ryland, 1976
    • Ryland, 1977
    • Silén, 1987
    • Stebbing, 1973
    • Winston, 1977
  • Taxonomy

    • Hayward & Ryland, 1995b
    • Hayward & Ryland, 1998
    • Howson & Picton, 1997
    • Ryland, 1967
    • Ryland, 1970
    • Ryland, 1976
  • Distribution

    • Bruce et al., 1963
    • Gontar & Denisenko, 1989
    • Hayward & Ryland, 1995b
    • Hayward & Ryland, 1998
    • Moore, 1973c
    • O'Connor et al., 1979
    • Ryland, 1967
    • Ryland, 1970
    • Ryland, 1976
    • Ryland, 1977
  • Reproduction

    • Bayer et al., 1994
    • Hayward & Ryland, 1998
    • Nielsen, 1990
    • Reed, 1991
    • Ryland, 1967
    • Ryland, 1970
    • Ryland, 1976
    • Ryland, 1977
    • Seed, 1985