Halichondria

A Intermediate genera from the “Other: Porifera” group, mostly found in Cobbles

Cobbles

Intermediate

Other: Porifera

Genera Characteristics Recorded Traits Possible Values
Size in cm
  • 11-20 cm
  • >20 cm
  • <1 cm
  • 1-10 cm
  • 11-20 cm
  • >20 cm
Genera Characteristics Recorded Traits Possible Values
Motility (Adult)
  • Sedentary
  • Adult
  • Short Range Mobility
  • Sedentary

“Sedentary”

Motility (Larval)
  • Short Term Planktonic
  • Brooded or Laid Eggs
  • Long Term Planktonic
  • Short Term Planktonic
  • Brooded or Laid Eggs

“Short Term Planktonic” “Brooded or Laid Eggs”

Lifespan
  • 3-10 years
  • >10 years
  • 3-10 years
  • 1-2 years
  • <1 year
Maturity
  • >4 years
  • 3-4 years
  • 1-2 years
  • <1 year
Fecundity
  • 1 - 10
  • 10 - 100
  • 100 - 1000
  • 1000 - 10000
  • 10000 - 1 million
  • > 1 million

Image: Halichondria © MES

Vulnerability

This sponge, commonly known as the breadcrumb sponge, is epiphytic and epilithic and an active suspension feeder of phytoplankton. It can reach a height of 25 cm and assume different forms, from encrusting to massive ones with elaborated chimneys. They are widely distributed all around Britain and Ireland in a wide range of depths and exposures. Sponges are fragile and vulnerable to dredging.

Recoverability

Halichondria has a distinct seasonal reproductive period, occurring in the summer months. The genus is hermaphroditic and ovoviviparous and produces a lecithotrophic larvae. New colonies can appear within one year from reproduction suggesting good dispersion and settlement potential where substratum is suitable for recolonization.

References

  • Biology

    • Barnes, 1980
    • Barthel & Wolfrath, 1989
    • Barthel, 1988
    • Biernbaum, 1981
    • Birkett et al., 1998(b)
    • Campbell, 1994
    • Farnham et al., 1985
    • Fish & Fish, 1996
    • Leichler & Witman, 1997
    • Moss & Ackers, 1982
    • Soest van et al., 2000
    • Vethaak et al., 1982
  • Taxonomy

    • Barthel, 1988
    • Fish & Fish, 1996
    • Hayward & Ryland, 1990
    • Howson & Picton, 1997
    • Moss & Ackers, 1982
    • Soest van et al., 2000
    • Vethaak et al., 1982
  • Distribution

    • Alander, 1942
    • Barnes, 1980
    • Barthel, 1988
    • Biernbaum, 1981
    • Birkett et al., 1998(b)
    • Bowerbank, 1874
    • Burton, 1959
    • Campbell, 1994
    • Hayward et al., 1996
    • JNCC, 1999
    • Moss & Ackers, 1982
    • NBN, 2002
    • Soest van et al., 2000
    • Soest van, 1977
    • Vethaak et al., 1982
  • Reproduction

    • Birkett et al., 1998(b)
    • Fish & Fish, 1996
    • Soest van et al., 2000
    • Vethaak et al., 1982
    • Wapstra & van Soest, 1987
    • Witte et al., 1994